The gut microbiome and epilepsy (Dahlin et al, 2019) A ketogenic diet has been demonstrated to have an impact upon seizure freqeuncy and severity for individuals with epilepsy, which may in part be as a result of changes to the intestinal microbiota. The next research challenge is to investigate how these compositional and functional shifts are relevant in terms of the anti-seizure effect of the ketogenic diet in patients with epilepsy.
Gut microbiome diversity is associated with sleep physiology in humans (Smith et al. 2019) We found that total microbiome diversity was positively correlated with increased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, and was negatively correlated with wake after sleep onset. We found positive correlations between total microbiome diversity and interleukin-6, a cytokine previously noted for its effects on sleep. Analysis of microbiome composition revealed that within phyla richness of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were positively correlated with sleep efficiency, interleukin6 concentrations and abstract thinking.
The neuroactive potential of the human gut microbiota in quality of life and depression (Valles-Colomer, 2019) This study has found that Coprococcus bacteria and Butyrate producing Faecalibacterium are consistently associated with higher quality of life indicators and that depletion of Coprococcus spp. is evident in patients with depression. The researchers conclude concluded that their results "...provide population-scale evidence for microbiome links to mental health"
Effects of regulating intestinal microbiota on anxiety symptoms: A systematic review (Yang et al, 2019) We find that more than half of the studies included showed it was positive to treat anxiety symptoms by regulation of intestinal microbiota. There are two kinds of interventions (probiotic and non-probiotic interventions) to regulate intestinal microbiota, and it should be highlighted that the non-probiotic interventions were more effective than the probiotic interventions.
The Perturbance of Microbiome and Gut-Brain Axis in Autism Spectrum Disorders(Fowlie et al, 2018) While research into the gut-brain connection in autism still remains in its preliminary phases, there is a convincing body of evidence that suggests a relationship between gastrointestinal distress and autism. The severity of GI symptoms has been correlated with autism severity, strongly suggesting an interaction between the gut and the brain. GI distress in ASD may be due to an altered intestinal microbiome. The “leaky gut” and gut-brain axis indicates the mechanism by which these altered metabolites can enter the systemic circulation and directly affect neurodevelopment. However, further exploration into the treatment of microbiome imbalance in ASD is very much needed.
Oral microbiomes: more and more importance in oral cavity and whole body (Gao et al, 2018) With the mouth being the first line of defence for foreign substances entering the body, it is vitally important to keep good dental hygeine and a balanced oral microbiome. Interaction and balance between a variety of oral microorganisms help the human body defend against the invasion of undesirable outside substances, with an imbalance conversely contributing to oral and whole-body systematic diseases.
A prebiotic intervention study in children with autism spectrum disorders(Grimaldi et al, 2018) To our knowledge, this is the first study where the effect of exclusion diets and prebiotics has been evaluated in autism, showing potential beneficial effects. A combined dietary approach resulted in significant changes in gut microbiota composition and metabolism suggesting that multiple interventions might be more relevant for the improvement of these aspects as well as psychological traits.
Diet, Microbiota, and Gut Permeability—The Unknown Triad in Rheumatoid Arthritis(Guerreiro et al, 2018) It has been established that Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients exhibit a distinct gut microbiota composition at the point of diagnosis, when compared to healthy individuals, with their microbiome undergoing further alterations as the disease develops. Diet however, appears to have a positive impact upon the physiopathology of RA, particularly with a mediterranean type dietary approach, possibly lowering disease activity and improving the outcome
Role of Gut Microbiota in the Development and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer(Lin et al, 2018) In the present study gut microbiota plays a key role in the mechanism of common treatment on CRC, and gut microbial dysbiosis will affect immunotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as the efficacy of medicine. It may increase the possibility of adverse reactions, the economic burden of patients, reduce patients compliance, and even lead to treatment failure.It is further suggested that clinicians should try to use probiotics to maintain and improve gut microbiota so as to prevent CRC.
What is the Microbiome?(Amon & Sanderson, 2017) The human microbiome has an estimated 100 trillion microbes, the bulk of which live in our gut.
Intestinal Permeability in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (Buscarinu et al, 2017) This study found that Intestinal Permeability (IP) alterations are a comparatively frequent occurence in relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (MS), with these IP changes potentially influenced by genetics. The study authors suggested that future treatment focussing upon IP alterations may be utilised to treat MS patients with gut barrier dysfunction, as well as possibly impacting on the immune-pathogenic mechanisms that mediate the progression of the disease.
Gut microbiota’s effect on mental health: The gut-brain axis(Clapp et al, 2017) This 2017 literature review demonstrated the importance of a healthy microbiome, for individuals with anxiety and depression, as dysbiosis and inflammation within the central nervous system have been associated as potential causes of mental illness. A number of studies contained within this review have shown that probiotics eased anxiety and depressive symptoms comparable to conventional prescription medications.
Eating disorders and the intestinal microbiota: Mechanisms of energy homeostasis and behavioural influence(Glenny et al, 2017) Numerous studies have reported that the microbiome is a contributing factor to energy balance and behaviour, with these two traits being commonly disrupted in patients with eating disorders. Currently, research on the potential link between the intestinal microbiota and eating disorders has focused exclusively on anorexia nervosa, with initial studies having demonstrated an atypical intestinal microbial composition in patients with this condition compared to healthy controls. These findings may promote innovative strategies for expanding current clinical therapies, by altering the microbiome to promote weight gain, decrease gastrointestinal symptoms and even reduce psychological symptomatology.
Linking Gut Microbiota to Colorectal Cancer (Raskov et al, 2017)Convincing data show that microbiota is deeply involved in colorectal carcinogenesis and the understanding of the microbial processes, especially with regard to interpreting the crosstalk between the microbes and the host, will help us explore the manipulation of the microbiota in the prevention and treatment of CRC through diets, pre-, pro- and antibiotics including next-generation antibiotics.
Interaction between the gut microbiome and mucosal immune system (Shi et al, 2017) Recentdata reveal the crucial role of intestinal microbiota in mucosal immunity. Studies have demonstrated an association between the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and the diminished interaction between intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system. This highlights the importance of investigating the function of the microbiome in such conditions, to identify potential future treatment strategies for chronic inflammatory diseases.
Skin-gut axis: The relationship between intestinal bacteria and skin health(Vaughn et al, 2017) The integral relationship between the gut microbiome and skin health is becoming an important topic in both gastroenterological and dermatological circles. It is particularly important to appreciate the influence that diet, medications and stress can have upon alterations to gut microbial communities, which may affect skin health. Psoriatic arthritis patients are at increased risk of developing IBD, with subclinical evidence of gut inflammation. A recent clinical study analysing the gut microbiome across three groups (psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and healthy controls) found less diversity in both the psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis groups. Vaughn et al (2017) found that Bifidobacterium Infantis supplementation for eight weeks improved the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels, suggesting that probiotic supplementation can modulate inflammation in this disorder.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Does the Gut Microbiome Hold the Key?(Leclercq et al, 2016) An association has been identified between depression, increased levels of pro-inflammatory bio-markers and abnormal stress responses. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) seems to also be concurrent with a low cortisol response, with this combination of factors potentially predisposing individuals to PTSD following a traumatic event. Dysregulation of the immune system and of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis evident in PTSD, may indicate prior exposure to trauma, especially early in life. Recent research data support the hypothesis that gut microbiota imbalance in early life may have ongoing immune and other physiological effects, which increase an individual's susceptibility to PTSD following a traumatic event and contribute to this disorder. This study concluded that it may be possible to target abnormalities in these systems through the manipulation of specific gut bacterial composition directly via supplementation or indirectly by dietary means.
The Healthy Human Microbiome(Lloyd-Price et al, 2016) Dysbioses in the microbiome have been associated with numerous diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, diabetes (types 1 and 2), allergies, asthma, autism, and cancer.
Microbial dysbiosis and disease pathogenesis of endometriosis, could there be a link?(Puca and Hoyne, 2016) "The pathogenesis of endometriosis could be related to microbial dysbiosis, predominately centred around a reduced commensal-associated immune capability, as well as an ascending microbial infection . . . . Key microbes were identified in women with endometriosis, implying that endometriosis, or at least the inflammatory property of endometriosis, is a result of microbial imbalance. Of particular interest was reduced Lactobacilli spp. abundance accompanied by a high pH environment. . . . This could have important implications for the treatment of endometriosis in the future".
Diet and eczema: a review of dietary supplements for the treatment of atopic dermatitis(Schlichte et al, 2016) While further studies are needed to clarify strains, dosing, and targeted populations, the use of probiotics and prebiotics in combination appears to hold promise in the treatment of AD. Based on the results of meta-analysis, the use of synbioticsappears most promising when given for at least 8 weeks to children over the age of 1 year, and with the use of probiotics that contain mixed strains of bacteria. Given the mounting interest in their use, as reflected by their growing popularity in current food advertising, probiotics and prebiotics will likely become an increasingly common topic of conversation in clinical settings.
Intestinal Microbiota as an Alternative Therapeutic Target for Epilepsy (Wu et al, 2016) Various studies have demonstrated that intestinal microbiota influence gut-brain immune responses during the progression of diverse autoimmune diseases. There is increasing evidence that the pathological mechanisms of autoimmunity might also play an important role in epilepsy.
Alcohol and Gut-Derived Inflammation (Bishehsari et al, 2014) Through multiple pathways, alcohol induces gut inflammation, which in turn promotes broad-spectrum pathologies both inside and outside the GI tract. In fact, many alcohol-related disorders, including cancers, liver disease, and neurological pathologies, may be exacerbated or directly affected by this alcohol-induced gut inflammation. The inflammation itself results from oxidative and nonoxidative pathways of alcohol metabolism that lead to a leaky gut, bacterial overgrowth, dysbiosis, and alterations in the mucosal immune system. As research uncovers the mechanisms by which alcohol affects gut inflammation and how that inflammation influences disease, researchers may be able to develop better strategies to prevent, or treat, conditions associated with chronic alcoholism.
The Gut Microbiome and the Brain(Galland, 2014) Gut bacteria influence reactivity of the HPA axis and the induction and maintenance of nREM sleep. They may influence mood, pain sensitivity and normal brain development.
The Human Gut Microbiome as a Screening Tool for Colorectal Cancer (Zackula et al, 2014) Our results suggest that relative abundance data from the human gut microbiome differentiates individuals with healthy colons from those with adenomas and carcinomas. Most importantly, there was a significant difference in the gut microbiome of people with colonic adenomas compared with those with healthy colons. This has considerable importance in secondary prevention because screening for early-stage colorectal cancer hinges on the ability to detect early pathologic changes. In this regard, we found that failure to detect at least 1 of the 5 OTUs served as a signal of the presence of adenoma. The probability of having an adenoma rose more than 50-fold with this added information about microbiome. Taken with the existing literature about the importance of the gut microbiome in health and disease, our study further suggests that the microbiome may play a crucial role in the etiology of colorectal cancer.