Effects of 1,25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D3 on Endometriosis (Miyashita et al, 2019) The researchers found that vitamin D significantly reduced inflammatory markers, as well as demonstrating that levels of this nutrient were significantly lower in women with severe endometriosis, than in patients with mild endometriosis or controls. They concluded that vitamin D deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of endometriosis, and therefore, propose that the supplementation of vitamin D may have therapeutic benefits in the management of endometriosis.
Vitamin D Deficiency and Antenatal and Postpartum Depression: A Systematic Review(Aghajafari et al, 2018) Based on the systemic evaluation of the previous literature in the field, there may be an association between lower vitamin D status and increased risk of depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy. While the quality of the available evidence was not always optimal due to lower methodologic quality of the studies, this review provides an analysis of the methodological issue that future supplementation studies need to consider in their research design.
The role of vitamin D in ovarian cancer: epidemiology, molecular mechanism and prevention(Guo et al,2018) The role of Vitamin D in human cancers, including ovarian cancer, has been widely investigated, where it was proposed to play a protective and antitumorigenic role by regulating cellular proliferation and metabolism. In this review, we have shown that vitamin D status may be an independent predictor of prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.Vitamin D combination therapy improves antitumor effects allowing for potential clinical application. Supplement of vitamin D and calcium combination may be an efficient method for cancer prevention.
Vitamin D3 Versus Gliadin: A Battle to the Last Tight Junction (Scricciolo et al, 2018) The positive impact of vitamin D on tight junctions could be used in celiac disease therapy to prevent the passage of peptides into the lamina propria, that enhances the inflammatory process.The findings related to intestinal barrier damage and the benefit from vitamin D use, suggest its application to other gluten-related disorders (such as non-celiac gluten sensitivity), where the presence of altered intestinal permeability is proven.
Vitamin D and Male Sexual Function: A Transversal and Longitudinal Study (Tirabassi et al, 2018) Our cross-sectional study shows that vitamin D levels are directly able to influence all sexual function parameters. Several transversal clinical studies have evaluated and confirmed the role of vitamin D in influencing sexual dysfunction. In this regard, the widest study has been conducted by Farag and colleagues who performed a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 3390 US men aged ≥ 20 years. They found that 25(OH) vitamin D levels were lower in men with, than in those without, erectile dysfunction. After adjusting for comorbidities, lifestyle variables, and medication use, those with 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency had a higher prevalence of erectile dysfunction compared to those with optimal levels. Interestingly, similar to our results, their findings suggest that the link of 25(OH) vitamin D with erectile dysfunction is independent of testosterone.
Vitamin D in prostate cancer (Trump and Aragon‑Ching, 2018) There are considerable data indicating the importance of vitamin D signaling in prostate cancer. Vitamin D signaling is a plausible target for the treatment of established cancers – either as vitamin D agents alone or such agents combined with other antineoplastic agents. Careful studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these biologic observations can be translated into prevention strategies.
Vitamin D and Breast Cancer: Latest Evidence and Future Steps (Atoum and Alzoughool, 2017) This review shows that most of the vitamin D studies support the inverse association between vitamin D level and breast cancer risk, and retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies revealed that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Nonetheless, there is an urgent need for better designed and randomised clinical trials that will address the association of vitamin D level with breast cancer risk, breast cancer development, recurrence, and survival at different breast cancer stages.
Vitamin D and VDR in Gynecological Cancers—A Systematic Review (Deuster et al., 2017)A large number of studies have displayed the crucial role vitamin D and its receptor have in gynaecological cancers. Preclinical, as well as epidemiological evidence, supports vitamin D’s risk-reducing influence in gynaecologic carcinomas . It is a widely shared opinion that vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of developing cancer.
Role of vitamin D deficiency in systemic lupus erythematosus incidence and aggravation (Hassanalilou et al,2017) Patients with SLE are at a clear risk of developing 25(OH) D deficiency because of photo-sensitivity and the frequently use of photo-protection. In addition to the potential benefit of vitamin D replacement on SLE activity, patients will also avoid the excess morbidity and mortality associated with vitamin D deficiency. More researches will help us better understand the role of vitamin D as immunomodulatory and determine the ideal range of serum 25(OH)D for musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and immune health. Since vitamin D has an immune modulating effect, it is plausible that vitamin D deficiency is not only a risk factor, but also a consequence of SLE. According to several trials routine assessment of vitamin D levels and adequate supplementation of the vitamin in patients with SLE is recommended.
The Relationship between Vitamin D and Glaucoma: A Kangbuk Samsung Health Study(Kim et al, 2016) Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration (an indicator of vitamin D levels) was significantly associated with an increased risk of glaucoma in women compared to those with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The results of this study indicated that vitamin D status independently affects glaucoma pathophysiology in women, although the study authors were unable to explain the exact mechanism responsible. They did conclude however, that with the presence of a primary factor, a low vitamin D level might leave the optic nerve more vulnerable to glaucoma.
Vitamin D and Dementia(Littlejohns et al, 2016) Emerging evidence suggests that low vitamin D concentrations are potentially involved in the pathogenesis of dementia. This is of particular interest when considering the high prevalence vitamin D deficiency in elderly adults and the urgent need to identify modifiable risk factors for dementia. Studies have found that vitamin D is implicated in procognitive and neuroprotective functions, including the reduction of Alzheimer’s disease hallmarks such as amyloid beta. Cross-sectional studies have also consistently found that vitamin D concentrations are significantly lower in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls.
Systematic Review of the Relationship between Vitamin D and Parkinson’s Disease(Rimmelzwaan et al, 2016) This systematic review indicates that Parkinson's disease is associated with lower serum vitamin D levels. Secondly, higher vitamin D levels are associated with better balance, and vitamin D supplementation appears to have a positive effect on Parkinson's disease motor symptoms. Finally, results from rodent models suggest that vitamin D may also have a neuroprotective effect. Additional studies are needed to further explore and elucidate the symptomatic and potential neuroprotective effects of vitamin D in Parkinson’s disease.
Serum Magnesium and Vitamin D Levels as Indicators of Asthma Severity(Shaikh et al, 2016) Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in asthmatic patients. Moreover higher asthma severity, poor asthma control, and frequent exacerbations in asthmatic patients are associated with lower levels of vitamin D and magnesium. Serum 25(OH)D and magnesium levels may serve as markers of asthma severity. So levels of these analytes should be monitored in asthmatic patients and should be corrected if found low.
Vitamin D Deﬁciency Predicts Prostate Biopsy Outcomes (Murphy et al, 2014) The study authors found that not only was vitamin D deficiency correlated with an increased occurrence of prostate cancer diagnosis on biopsy in African American men, but in both European American and African American men, severe deficiency was positively correlated with a higher Gleason grade disease, tumour stage and an increased risk of prostate cancer recurrence. The researchers therefore concluded, that "the use of vitamin D deficiency as a biomarker of advanced disease should be further evaluated".
Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Association with Thyroid Disease (Mackawy et al, 2013) Our results indicated that patients with hypothyroidism suffered from hypovitaminosis D with hypocalcaemia that is significantly associated with the degree and severity of the hypothyroidism. That encourages the advisability of vitamin D supplementation and recommends the screening for Vitamin D deficiency and serum calcium levels for all hypothyroid patients.
The effect of vitamin D on insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes (Talaeiet al, 2013) The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on glucose homeostasis. The results showed that vitamin D supplementation significantly decreased serum FPG, insulin and HOMA-IR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It seems that vitamin D can improve diabetes control and it is recommended that vitamin D supplementation should be included in treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Vitamin D and rheumatoid arthritis (Kostoglou-Athanassiou et al, 2012) It appears that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with RA, and that vitamin D deficiency may be linked to disease severity in RA. As vitamin D deficiency has been linked to diffuse musculoskeletal pain, these results have therapeutic implications. Vitamin D supplementation may be needed both for the prevention of osteoporosis as well as for pain relief in patients with RA.
Vitamin D and gastrointestinal diseases: inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer(Raman et al, 2011) There is rapidly increasing epidemiological and strong experimental evidence, suggesting a role for vitamin D in IBD and CRC. Although data to date have been demonstrated in largely in vitro studies and murine models of IBD, it is clear that vitamin D potentially has potent immunomodulatory actions on the T-cellmediated processes implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD, both at DC and T-cell level. In light of this evidence, well-conducted clinical trials of vitamin D or its analogues in human IBD patients are strongly indicated to assess further the potential therapeutic immunomodulatory properties of this much underestimated nutrient.
Vitamin D analogs in the treatment of psoriasis (Trémezaygues and Reichrath, 2011) Numerous studies have identified an association between polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the predisposition to psoriasis. With vitamin D being involved in the maintenance of cutaneous barrier equilibrium, significant associations between low vitamin D status and psoriasis have systematically been observed. For several years it has been demonstrated that vitamin D compounds are effective and safe in the topical treatment of psoriasis. In future, creating vitamin D analogues that activate selective vitamin D signalling pathways, but exert only minor calcaemic activity, would introduce a new era in dermatological therapy in the form of topical and systemic treatments for a variety of inflammatory skin diseases.
Vitamin D and Depression: Where is all the Sunshine?(Penckofer et al, 2010) If exercising outdoors in the sunshine, eating foods rich in vitamin D, and/or taking dietary supplements to improve vitamin D deficiency could improve one’s mental well being, it would be a simple and cost-effective solution for many who are at risk for depression and possibly other mental disorders.
Vitamin D Deficiency (Holick, 2007) Undiagnosed vitamin D deficiency is not uncommon and 25-hydroxyvitamin D is the barometer for vitamin D status. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is not only a predictor of bone health, but is also an independent predictor of risk for cancer and other chronic diseases.